International Journal of Environmental Protection          
An Open Access Journal
ISSN: 2226-6437(Print)      ISSN: 2224-7777(Online)
Frequency: Annually
Editorial-in-Chief: Prof. Kevin Mickus,
Missouri University of Science & Technology, USA.
Estimation of Sediment, Organic Carbon, and Phosphorous Loads from Pasikhan River into Anzali Wetland, Iran
Full Paper(PDF, 1600KB)
The Anzali Wetland, located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, is internationally known as a habitat of migratory birds. This is an important area as a spawning and nursery ground for fish, and as a breeding and wintering area for a wide variety of waterfowl. Environmental conditions in the Anzali Wetland have been degraded due to the increased inflow of sewerage, wastewater, and solid waste from industry, agriculture and urban areas. There is also an inflow of sediment from the upper stream mountainous area. This study aims to measure and estimate the total annual OC and phosphorous delivered from Pasikhan River into the Wetland. The estimation of sediment delivery to the Anzali Wetland was updated based on the suspended load measurements in sedimentological stations for nine major entering rivers. Total sediment load was estimated at 683.5 × 103 ton y-1; this shows a significant increase from previous estimations. This indicates that soil erosion is an important problem in the Anzali watershed. Water sampling was performed at Pasikhan River’s Nokhaleh Hydrometric Station, since Pasikhan is considered the most important river entering the Anzali Wetland during one year. The samples were analyzed for phosphorous fractions and organic carbon content of suspended sediment. P concentration and OC showed monthly changes. Both were high in wet months (September to March) and lower in dry months. This pattern also emphasizes the importance of soil erosion on the conditions of the Anzali Wetland. Total OC and P load from Pasikhan River into the Wetland were estimated to be 2710 ton y-1 and 245 ton y-1, respectively.
Keywords:Eutrophication; Particulate Phosphorous; Soil Erosion; Suspended Sediment
Author: Hossein Asadi1
1.Soil Science Department, University of Tehran, Iran
  1. Ramsar sites database.
  2. J. Holčik, and J. Oláh, “2.3 Status of the Anzali Lagoon; Fish, Fisheries and Water Quality in Anzali Lagoon and Its Watershed,” Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1992. accessed 9 June 2016.
  3. N. Pourang, “Heavy metal concentrations in surficial sediments and benthic macroinvertebrates from Anzali wetland, Iran,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 331(1), pp. 53-61, 1996.
  4. G. Amini Ranjbar, “Heavy metal concentration in surficial sediments from Anzali Wetland, Iran,” Water Air Soil Poll., vol. 104(3), pp. 305-12, 1998.
  5. F. Ghazban, and M. Zare, “Source of heavy metal pollutions in sediments of the Anzali wetland in northern Iran,” J. Environ. Stud., vol. 37(1), pp. 45-56, 2010.
  6. M.R. Vesali Naseh, A. Karbassi, F. Ghazaban and A. Baghvand, “Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Anzali Wetland, Guilan, Iran,” Iranian J. Toxicol., vol. 5(15), pp. 565-576, 2012.
  7. H.L. Golterman, and N.T. de Oude, “Eutrophication of Lakes, Rivers and Coastal Areas,” p. 79-124. In: O. Hutzinger (ed.) The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Vol 5. Part A. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1991.
  8. P.C.M. Boers, and D.T. Van der Molen, “Control of eutrophication in lakes: state of the art in Europe,” Eur. Water Pollut. Control, vol. 3, pp. 19-25, 1993.
  9. V. Ruban, J.F. Lo´pez-Sa´nchez, P. Pardo, G. Rauret, H. Muntau, and Ph. Quevauviller, “Selection and evaluation of sequential extraction procedures for thedetermination of phosphorus forms in lake sediment,” J. Environ. Monit., vol. 1, pp. 51-56, 1999.
  10. C. G. Crawford, “Estimation of suspended-sediment rating curves and mean suspended-sediment loads,” J. Hydrol., vol. 129, pp. 331-348, 1991.
  11. T.K. Edwards, and G.D. Glysson, “Field Methods for Measurement of Fluvial Sediment: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations,” Book 3, chap. C2, 89 p, 1999. (Also available at
  12. R. Burt, “Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual,” Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42. United States Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2004.
  13. H.P. Jarvie, J. A. Withers, and C. Neal, “Review of robust measurement of phosphorus in river water: sampling, storage, fractionation and sensitivity,” Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., vol. 6, pp. 113-131, 2002.
  14. B. Razdar, K. Mohammadi, J.M.V. Samani, and B. Pirooz, “Determining the best water quality model for the rivers in north of Iran (case study: Pasikhan River),” Comp. Meth. Civil Eng., vol. 2(1), pp. 109-121, 2011.
  15. I. Emadodin, D. Narita, and H. R. Bork, “Soil degradation and agricultural sustainability: an overview from Iran,” Environ. Devel. Sustain., vol. 14(5), pp. 611-625, 2012.
  16. O. Buhvestova, K. Kangur, M. Haldna, and T. Möls, “Nitrogen and phosphorus in Estonian rivers discharging into Lake Peipsi: estimation of loads and seasonal and spatial distribution of concentrations,” Estonian J. Ecol., vol. 60(1), pp. 18-38, 2011.
  17. K.D. Kimball, and S.F. Kimball, “The limnology of the Pahlavi Mordab, Iran: a study of eutrophication problems,” Technical report: Human Environment Division, Iranian Dept. of the Environment, 1974.
  18. A. Akbarzadeh, H.A. Laghai, M. Monavari, S.A. Nezami, M. Shokrzadeh, and S.S. Saeedi Saravi, “Survey and determination of Anzali wetland trophic state through geographic information systems (GIS),” Toxicol Environ. Chem., vol. 90(6), pp. 1055-62, 2008.
  19. A.R. Mirzajani, H. Khodaparast sharifi, H. Babaei, A. Abedini, and A. Dadai Ghandi, “Eutrophication trend of Anzali Wetland based on 1992-2002 data,” J. Environ. Stud., vol. 35(52), pp. 19-21, 2010.